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قراءة كتاب The Nests and Eggs of Indian Birds, Volume 1

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The Nests and Eggs of Indian Birds, Volume 1

The Nests and Eggs of Indian Birds, Volume 1

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دار النشر: Project Gutenberg
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Godw.-Aust. 462. Prinia lepida, Bl 463. —— flaviventris (Deless) 464. ——socialis, Sykes 465. ——sylvatica, Jerd 466. ——inornata, Sykes 467. ——jerdoni (Bl.) 468. ——blanfordi (Walden)

Family LANIIDAE.

Subfamily LANIINAE.

469. Lanius lahtora (Sykes) 473. —— vittatus, Valenc 475. —— nigriceps (Frankl.) 476. —— erythronotus (Vig.) 477. —— tephronotus (Vig) 481. —— cristatus, Linn 484. Hemipus picatus (Sykes) 485. —— capitalis (McClell.) 480. Tephrodornis pelvicus (Hodgs) 487. —— sylvicola, Jerd 488. —— pondicerianus (Gm.) 490. Pericrocotus speciosus (Lath.) 494. Pericrocotus flammeus (Forst.) 495. —— brevirostris (Vigors) 499. —— roseus (Vieill.) 500. —— peregrinus (Linn.) 501. —— erythropygius (Jerd.) 505. Campophaga melanoschista (Hodgs.) 508. —— sykesi (Shield.) 509. —— terat (Bodd.) 510. Graucalus macii, Lesson

Subfamily ARTAMINAE.

512. Artamus fuscus, Vieill 513. —— leucogaster (Valenc.)

Family ORIOLIDAE.

518. Oriolus kundoo, Sykes 521. —— melanocephalus, Linn. 522. —— traillii (Vigors)

Family EULABETIDAE.

523. Eulabes religiosa (Linn.) 524. —— intermedia (A. Hay) 526. —— ptilogenys (Bl.) 527. Calornis chalybeïus (Horsf.)

Family STURNIDAE.

528. Pastor roseus (Linn.) 529. Sturnus humii, Brooks 531. —— minor, Hume 537. Sturnia blythii (Jerd.) 538. —— malabarica (Gm.) 539. —— nemoricola, Jerd 543. Ampeliceps coronatus, Bl 544. Temenuchus pagodarum (Gm.) 546. Graculipica nigricollis (Payk.) 549. Acridotheres tristis (Linn.) 550. —— melanosternus, Legge 551. —— ginginianus (Lath.) 552. Aethiopsar fuscus (Wayl.) 555. Sturnopastor contra (Linn.) 556. —— superciliaris, Bl

ERRATA.

Page 103. After Drymocataphus tickelli insert (Blyth).

Page 126. For Bhringa tenuirostris read B. tectirostris.

Page 223. For Pnoepyga albiventris (Hodgs.), read Pnoepyga squamata (Gould).

Page 311. After Lanius vittatus Insert Valene.

[Illustration: THOMAS CAVERHILL JERDON.]

[Illustration: BRIAN HOUGHTON HODGSON.]

[Illustration: SAMUEL RICHARD TICKELL.]

Order PASSERES. Family CORVIDAE. Subfamily CORVINAE.

1. Corvus corax, Linn. The Raven.

Corvus corax, Linn., Jerd. B. Ind. ii, p. 293.
Corvus lawrencii, Hume; Hume, Rough Draft N. & E. no. 657.

I separated the Punjab Raven under the name of Corvus lawrencei ('Lahore to Yarkand,' p. 83), and I then stated, what I wish now to repeat, that if we are prepared to consider C. corax, C. littoralis, C. thibetanus, and C. japonensis all as one and the same species, then C. lawrencei too must be suppressed; but if any of these are retained as distinct, then so must C. lawrencei be[A].

[Footnote A: I think it impossible to separate the Punjab Raven from the Ravens of Europe and other parts of the world, and I have therefore merged it into C. corax.—ED.]

The Punjab Raven breeds throughout the Punjab (except perhaps in the Dehra Ghazee Khan District), in Bhawulpoor, Bikaneer, and the northern portions of Jeypoor and Jodhpoor, extending rarely as far south as Sambhur. To Sindh it is merely a seasonal visitant, and I could not learn that they breed there, nor have I ever known of one breeding anywhere east of the Jumna. Even in the Delhi Division of the Punjab they breed sparingly, and one must go further north and west to find many nests.

The breeding-season lasts from early in December to quite the end of March; but this varies a little according to season and locality, though the majority of birds always, I think, lay in January.

The nest is generally placed in single trees of no great size, standing in fields or open jungle. The thorny Acacias are often selected, but I have seen them on Sisoo and other trees.

The nest, placed in a stout fork as a rule, is a large, strong, compact, stick structure, very like a Rook's nest at home, and like these is used year after year, whether by the same birds or others of the same species I cannot say. Of course they never breed in company: I never found two of their nests within 100 yards of each other, and, as a rule, they will not be found within a quarter of a mile of each other.

Five is, I think, the regular complement of eggs; very often I have only found four fully incubated eggs, and on two or three occasions six have, I know, been taken in one nest, though I never myself met with so many.

I find the following old note of the first nest of this species that I ever took:—

"At Hansie, in Skinner's Beerh, December 19, 1867, we found our first Raven's nest. It was in a solitary Keekur tree, which originally of no great size had had all but two upright branches lopped away. Between these two branches was a large compact stick nest fully 10 inches deep and 18 inches in diameter, and not more than 20 feet from the ground. It contained five slightly incubated eggs, which the old birds evinced the greatest objection to part with, not only flying at the head of the man who removed them, but some little time after they had been removed similarly attacking the man who ascended the tree to look at the nest. After the eggs were gone, they sat themselves on a small branch above the nest side by side, croaking most ominously, and shaking their heads at each other in the most amusing manner, every now and then alternately descending to the nest and scrutinizing every portion of the cavity with their heads on one side as if to make sure that the eggs were really gone."

Mr. W. Theobald makes the following note of this bird's nidification in the neighbourhood of Pind Dadan Khan and Katas in the Salt Range:—

"Lay in January and February; eggs, four only; shape, ovato-pyriform; size, 1·7 by 1·3; colour, dirty sap green, blotched with blackish brown; also pale green spotted with greenish brown and neutral; nest of sticks difficult to get at, placed in well-selected trees or holes in cliffs."

I have not verified the fact of their breeding in holes in cliffs, but it is very possible that they do. All I found near Pind Dadan Khan and in the Salt Range were doubtless in trees, but I explored a very limited portion of these hills.

Colonel C.H.T. Marshall, writing from Bhawulpoor on the 17th February, says: "I succeeded yesterday in getting four eggs of the Punjab Raven. The eggs were hard-set and very difficult to clean."

From Sambhur Mr. R.M. Adam tells us:—"This Raven is pretty common during the cold weather, but pairs are seen about here throughout the year. They are very fond of attaching themselves to the camps of the numerous parties of Banjaras who visit the lake.

"I obtained a nest at the end of January which contained

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