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قراءة كتاب Two Old Faiths Essays on the Religions of the Hindus and the Mohammedans
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Two Old Faiths Essays on the Religions of the Hindus and the Mohammedans
TWO OLD FAITHS
ESSAYS ON THE RELIGIONS OF THE HINDUS
AND THE MOHAMMEDANS
J. MURRAY MITCHELL, M.A., LL.D.
SIR WILLIAM MUIR, LL.D., D.C.L.
C. L. S. C. Department, 150 Fifth Avenue
The required books of the C. L. S. C. are recommended by a Council of Six. It must, however, be understood that recommendation does not involve an approval by the Council, or by any member of it, of every principle or doctrine contained in the book recommended.
These essays have been selected from the admirable series of Present Day Tracts, published by the Religious Tract Society, London, and are reprinted with permission.
THE HINDU RELIGION.
Philosophy, and Ritualism
Contrast with Christianity
Hinduism in Contact with Christianity
THE RISE AND DECLINE OF ISLAM.
The Rapid Spread of Islam
Why the Spread of Islam was Stayed
Low Position of Islam in the Scale of Civilization
THE HINDU RELIGION.
OUTLINE OF THE ESSAY.
The place of Hinduism—which is professed by about a hundred and ninety millions in India—among the religions of the world, and its great antiquity, are pointed out.
The comparative simplicity of the system contained in the Vedas, the oldest sacred books of the Hindus, its almost entire freedom from the use of images, its gradual deterioration in the later hymns, its gradual multiplication of gods, the advance of sacerdotalism, and the increasing complexity of its religious rites are set forth.
The philosophical speculation that was carried on, the different philosophical schools, the Buddhist reaction, its conflict with Brahmanism, its final defeat, and its influence on the victorious system are discussed.
The religious reconstruction represented by the Puranas, their theological character, the modern ritual, the introduction and rise of caste, and the treatment of women are then considered.
A contrast is drawn between the leading characteristics of Hinduism and those of Christianity, and the effect of Christian ideas on modern Hinduism is exhibited. The history of the Brahmo Somaj under Keshub Chunder Sen is given at some length.
THE HINDU RELIGION.
The system of religious belief which is generally called Hinduism is, on many accounts, Hinduism deserving of study.eminently deserving of study. If we desire to trace the history of the ancient religions of the widely extended Aryan or Indo-European race, to which we ourselves belong, we shall find in the earlier writings of the Hindus an exhibition of it decidedly more archaic even than that which is presented in the Homeric poems. Then, the growth—the historical development—of Hinduism is not less worthy of attention than its earlier phases. It has endured for upward of three thousand years, no Its antiquity.doubt undergoing very important changes, yet in many things retaining its original spirit. The progress of the system has not been lawless; and it is exceedingly instructive to note the development, and, if possible, explain it.
We are, then, to endeavor to study Hinduism chronologically. Unless he does so almost every man who tries to comprehend it is, at first, overwhelmed with a feeling of utter confusion and bewilderment. Hinduism spreads out before him as a vast river, or even what seems at first
Illimitable ocean, without bound,
Without dimension, where length, breadth, and height,
And time, and place are lost."
But matters begin to clear up when he begins at The discussion chronological.the beginning, and notes how one thing succeeded another. It may not be possible as yet to trace all the windings of the stream or to show at what precise points in its long course it was joined by such and such a tributary; yet much is known regarding the mighty river which every intelligent man will find it profitable to note and understand.
The Christian ought not to rest satisfied with the vague general idea The Christian's duty in relation to the subject. that Hinduism is a form of heathenism with which he has nothing to do, save to help in destroying it. Let him