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قراءة كتاب Northern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the Second Annual Meeting Ithaca, New York, December 14 and 15, 1911

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Northern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the Second Annual Meeting
Ithaca, New York, December 14 and 15, 1911

Northern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the Second Annual Meeting Ithaca, New York, December 14 and 15, 1911

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دار النشر: Project Gutenberg
الصفحة رقم: 6

much larger in the mandshurica than they are in the butternut and there is a marked difference in the flavor. You can distinguish them readily enough.

Mr. Littlepage: The butternut grows wild throughout the Middle West, usually along small water courses and alluvial lands. There are perhaps one hundred and fifty on a creek corner on one of my farms.

President Morris: They are very plenty here at Ithaca. In fact, you will find them in Maine and Nova Scotia.

Mr. Littlepage: I saw them in Michigan.

President Morris: I will state, that from two until four the members will view the collections, and make the tour of the Campus buildings. During that time the report on competition, or at least examination of specimens in competition, should be made, and I would like to appoint Professor Reed and Mr. Littlepage on that committee, and I will serve as ex-officio member of the committee. The other committees I can make up a little later. The next order of business will be the President's address. Mr. Littlepage, will you take the chair?


Robert T. Morris, M. D.

So far as we know, the hickories, belonging to the Juglandaceae, are indigenous to the North American continent only. Representatives of the group occur naturally from southern Canada to the central latitude of Mexico, in a curved band upon the map, which would be bounded upon the east by the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, and on the west roughly by the Missouri River, until that river bends east from the eastern boundary of Kansas. From the angle of that bend the hickory runs approximately southwest into Mexico.

The exact number of species has not been determined as yet, because of the open question of specific or varietal differences in some members of the family. Sargent's classification at present includes eleven species: Hicoria pecan, H. Texana, H. minima, H. myristicaeformis, H. aquatica, H. ovata, H. Carolinae-septentrionalis, H. laciniosa, H. alba. H. glabra, and H. villosa. To this list may be added H. Mexicana (Palmer), which so far seems to have been found only in the high mountains of Alvarez, near San Louis Potosi in Mexico; and H. Buckleyi from Texas, which was described once by Durand, and since that time overlooked by writers, excepting by Mrs. M. J. Young in 1873, who included the species in her "Lessons in Botany." Professor Sargent tells me that the Buckley hickory will be included in the next edition of Sargent's "Manual of the Trees of North America." This brings the number of species up to thirteen. In addition we have well marked varieties: H. glabra odorata, H. glabra pallida, and H. glabra microcarpa, making sixteen well defined hickories that have been described.

Nuts of all of these hickories are in the collection of "Edible Nuts of the World" at Cornell University, with the exception of nuts of the varieties H. glabra odorata and H. glabra pallida.

In addition to the sixteen described varieties and species of hickories in America, we have an endless variety of hybrid forms, because cross-pollenization seems to take place readily between hickories of synchronous flowering time.

Five of the hickories: H. pecan, H. Texana, H. minima, H. myristicaeformis, and H. aquatica belong to the open-bud group, while the rest belong to the scale-bud group. The winter buds of the open-bud group resemble the winter buds of the walnuts in a general way, and in artificial hybridization experiments I seem to note a close relationship between the open-bud hickories and the walnuts.

There is no more promising work for the horticulturist than crossing hickories with walnuts, and crossing hickories with each other. Five hundred years from now we shall probably find extensive orchards of such hybrids occupying thousands of acres of land which is now practically worthless. The hickories are to furnish a substantial part of the food supply of the world in the years to come. At the present time wild hickories held most highly in esteem are: H. pecan, H. ovata, H. Carolinae-septentrionalis, and H. laciniosa. Several other kinds have edible kernels, sometimes of excellent character, but not readily obtained except by boys and squirrels, whose time is not valuable. In this group we have H. alba, H. glabra, H. villosa, H. glabra pallida, H. glabra odorata, H. glabra microcarpa, H. Mexicana, H. Buckleyi, and H. myristicaeformis. In another group of hickories with temptingly thin shells and plump kernels, we have a bitter or astringent pellicle of the kernel. This group contains H. Texana, H. minima, and H. aquatica. Sometimes in the bitter group we find individual trees with edible nuts, and it is not unlikely that some of them represent hybrids in which the bitter and astringent qualities have been recessive.

Among the desirable species of wild hickories there is much variation in character, and selection of trees for propagation is in its infancy. One reason for this has been the difficulty of transplanting hickories. Another reason is the fact that hickories do not come true to parent type from seed. A third reason is the length of time required for seedling hickories to come into bearing.

Concerning the first reason, the enormous taproot of young hickories requires so much pabulum for maintenance that when the trees are transplanted, with destruction of root-hairs along with the feeding roots, transplanted stocks may remain a year or two years in the ground before they are ready to send out buds from the top. On this account, the Stringfellow method has in my locality proven of value. This consists in extreme cutting back of root and top, leaving little more than a short club for transplantation. The short club does not require much pabulum for maintenance, and new feeding roots with their root-hairs get the club under way quickly, because there is little useless load for them to carry. The Stringfellow method further includes the idea that stock should be planted in very hard ground, and seems to be practicable with the hickories. The root-hairs which take up nourishment from the soil find it difficult to carry on osmosis in loose soil. The close contact obtained by forcing a way through compact soil facilitates feeding. On this account, autumn is perhaps a better time for transplantation of hickories, in the northern latitudes, at least. Callus forms over the ends of cut roots at all times when the ground is not frozen, and the more complete the callus formation the more readily are feeding roots sent out.

One of the main obstacles to propagation of hickories has depended upon the fact that nuts did not come true to parent type from seed. This is overcome by budding or grafting, and we can now multiply the progeny from any one desirable plant indefinitely. In the South grafting is nearly as successful as budding, but in the North budding seems to be the better method for propagation. The chief difficulty in grafting or budding the hickories is due to slow formation of callus and of granulation processes which carry on repair of wounds.

The propagation of trees from a desirable individual plant can be accomplished also by transplanting roots. A hickory root dug from the ground, divested of small rootlets, cut into segments a foot or more in length, and set perpendicularly in sand with half an inch protruding, will throw out shoots from adventitious buds. In my experimental work with hickory roots, in covered jars, surrounded by wet moss, but with the entire root reached by light, adventitious buds have started along the entire length of the root, and we may find this an economical way for root propagation, dividing up sprouting roots into small segments. The chief objection to this method of propagation as compared with budding is the length of time required