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قراءة كتاب Technology and Books for All

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Technology and Books for All

Technology and Books for All

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دار النشر: Project Gutenberg
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Technology and Books for All, by Marie Lebert

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at

** This is a COPYRIGHTED Project Gutenberg eBook, Details Below ** ** Please follow the copyright guidelines in this file. **

Title: Technology and Books for All

Author: Marie Lebert

Release Date: March 14, 2009 [EBook #27098]

Language: English


Produced by Al Haines



Updated Version

NEF, University of Toronto, 2008

Copyright © 2008 Marie Lebert


From Project Gutenberg in 1971 to the Encyclopedia of Life in 2007, 38 milestones and as many pages, with an overview and an in-depth description for each milestone. This book is also available in French, with a different text. Both versions are available on the NEF <>.


Marie Lebert is a researcher and journalist specializing in technology and books, other media and languages. She is the author of Les mutations du livre (Mutations of the Book, in French, 2007) and Le Livre 010101 (The 010101 Book, in French, 2003). All her books have been published by NEF (Net des études françaises / Net of French Studies), University of Toronto, Canada, and are freely available online at <>.


Most quotations are excerpts from NEF interviews. With many thanks to all the persons who are quoted here, and who kindly answered my questions over the years. Most interviews are available online at <>.


With many thanks to Greg Chamberlain, Laurie Chamberlain, Kimberly Chung, Mike Cook, Michael Hart and Russon Wooldridge, who kindly edited and/or proofread some parts in previous versions. The author, whose mother tongue is French, is responsible for any remaining mistakes.




1968: ASCII 1971: Project Gutenberg 1974: Internet 1977: UNIMARC 1984: Copyleft 1990: Web 1991: Unicode 1993: Online Books Page 1993: PDF 1994: Library Websites 1994: Bold Publishers 1995: 1995: Online Press 1996: Palm Pilot 1996: Internet Archive 1996: New Ways of Teaching 1997: Digital Publishing 1997: Logos Dictionary 1997: Multimedia Convergence 1998: Online Beowulf 1998: Digital Librarians 1998: Multilingual Web 1999: Open eBook Format 1999: Digital Authors 2000: 2000: Online Bible of Gutenberg 2000: Distributed Proofreaders 2000: Public Library of Science 2001: Wikipedia 2001: Creative Commons 2002: MIT OpenCourseWare 2004: Project Gutenberg Europe 2004: Google Books 2005: Open Content Alliance 2006: Microsoft Live Search Books 2006: Free WorldCat 2007: Citizendium 2007: Encyclopedia of Life



Michael Hart, who founded Project Gutenberg in 1971, wrote: "We consider eText to be a new medium, with no real relationship to paper, other than presenting the same material, but I don't see how paper can possibly compete once people each find their own comfortable way to eTexts, especially in schools." (excerpt from a NEF interview, August 1998)

Tim Berners-Lee, who invented the web in 1989-90, wrote: "The dream behind the web is of a common information space in which we communicate by sharing information. Its universality is essential: the fact that a hypertext link can point to anything, be it personal, local or global, be it draft or highly polished. There was a second part of the dream, too, dependent on the web being so generally used that it became a realistic mirror (or in fact the primary embodiment) of the ways in which we work and play and socialize. That was that once the state of our interactions was on line, we could then use computers to help us analyse it, make sense of what we are doing, where we individually fit in, and how we can better work together." (excerpt from: The World Wide Web: A Very Short Personal History, May 1998)

John Mark Ockerbloom, who created The Online Books Page in 1993, wrote: "I've gotten very interested in the great potential the net had for making literature available to a wide audience. (…) I am very excited about the potential of the internet as a mass communication medium in the coming years. I'd also like to stay involved, one way or another, in making books available to a wide audience for free via the net, whether I make this explicitly part of my professional career, or whether I just do it as a spare-time volunteer." (excerpt from a NEF interview, September 1998)

Here is the journey we are going to follow:

1968: ASCII is a 7-bit coded character set. 1971: Project Gutenberg is the first digital library. 1974: The internet takes off. 1977: UNIMARC is set up as a common bibliographic format. 1984: Copyleft is a new license for computer software. 1990: The web takes off. 1991: Unicode is a universal double-byte character set. 1993: The Online Books Page is a list of free eBooks. 1993: The PDF format is launched by Adobe. 1994: The first library website goes online. 1994: Publishers put some of their books online for free. 1995: is the first main online bookstore. 1995: The mainstream press goes online. 1996: The Palm Pilot is the first PDA. 1996: The Internet Archive is founded to archive the web. 1996: Teachers explore new ways of teaching. 1997: Online publishing begins spreading. 1997: The Logos Dictionary goes online for free. 1997: Multimedia convergence is the topic of an international symposium. 1998: Library treasures like Beowulf go online. 1999: Librarians become webmasters. 1998: The web becomes multilingual. 1999: The Open eBook format is a standard for eBooks. 1999: Authors go digital. 2000: is a language portal. 2000: The Bible of Gutenberg goes online. 2000: Distributed Proofreaders digitizes books from public domain. 2000: The Public Library of Science (PLoS) works on free online journals. 2001: Wikipedia is the first main online cooperative encyclopedia. 2001: Creative Commons works on new ways to respect authors' rights on the web. 2003: MIT offers its course materials for free in its OpenCourseWare. 2004: Project Gutenberg Europe is launched as a multilingual project. 2004: Google launches Google Print to rename it Google Books. 2005: The Open Content Alliance (OCA) launches a world public digital library. 2006: Microsoft launches Live Search Books as its own digital library. 2006: The union catalog WorldCat goes online for free. 2007: Citizendium is a main online "reliable" cooperative encyclopedia. 2007: The Encyclopedia of Life will document all species of animals and plants.

[Unless specified otherwise, all quotations are excerpts from NEF interviews. These interviews are available online at