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قراءة كتاب Food in War Time

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Food in War Time

Food in War Time

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دار النشر: Project Gutenberg
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It is evident that the energy requirement is proportional to the amount of mechanical energy expended.

One may turn now to the fuel needs in terms of calories in certain industrial pursuits. According to Becker and Hämäläinen, the quantity of extra metabolism per hour required in various pursuits is as follows:

Extra calories of
metabolism per
hour due to
occupation
Occupations of women:
Seamstress 6
Typist[5] 24
Seamstress using sewing machine 24-57
Bookbinder 38-63
Housemaid 81-157
Washerwoman 124-214
Occupations of men:
Tailor 44
Bookbinder 81
Shoemaker 90
Carpenter 116-164
Metal worker 141
Painter (of furniture) 145
Stonemason 300
Man sawing wood 378

To use this table one may seek the basal metabolism of the individual, add 10 per cent. for sixteen hours of wakefulness when the person is sitting or standing, and then multiply the factors in the last table by the numbers of hours of work. For example, if one takes the individual weighing 156 pounds, one obtains the following requirements of energy if his business were that of a tailor and he worked eight hours a day:

Calories
Sleeping 8 hours at 70 calories per hour 560
Awake 16 hours at 77 calories per hour 1232
Add for work as tailor 8 hours at 44 calories 352
2144

After this fashion one might calculate his food requirements had he followed occupations other than that of tailor:

Occupation Calories of
metabolism
per day
Bookbinder 2440
Shoemaker 2510
Carpenter 3100
Metal worker 2900
Painter 2950
Stonemason 4200
Man sawing wood 4800

These figures make no allowance for walking to or from the place of employment.

The data here given are inadequate to cover the industrial situation, but they show clearly that heavy work cannot be accomplished without a sufficient amount of food-fuel.

The food-fuel with which to accomplish work is necessary not only for the soldier, but for the workman behind the line, and it should be adequate in quantity, satisfactory in quality, and not exorbitant in cost.

In virtue of the world-wide scarcity of food, the work of the individual should be worthy of the food which he eats.

Tables showing the cost of various wholesome food-stuffs about July 1, 1917, are here reproduced for the benefit of the reader. The tables were prepared by Dr. F. C. Gephart and issued by the Department of Health of the City of New York in a leaflet edited by Doctors Holt, La Fetra, Pisek, and Lusk on the subject of food for children. If the world is seeking after energy in the form of food-fuel, the world is rightly entitled to understand the value of its purchases. It must be clearly understood that people are always destined to look with hopeful anticipation toward the enjoyment of a meal. They will instinctively "eat calories" just as they instinctively "eat pounds." They buy pounds of food, and they could buy more intelligently if they knew the energy value of what they buy.


Cost of 1000 calories, cents Price per pound, cents
Table 1Cost of Fats.
Cottonseed oil 7.3 31
Oleomargarine 8.5 30
Peanut butter 8.8 25
Butter 11.9 43
Olive oil 12.1 51
Bacon 13.8 37
Bacon, sliced, in jars 23.8 65
Cream (extra heavy, 40 per cent.) 37.7 65 (1 pint)


Table 2Cost of Cereals.
Cornmeal, in bulk 3.6 6
Hominy, in bulk 3.6 6
Broken rice, in bulk 3.7 6
Oatmeal, in bulk 3.8 7
Samp, in bulk 4.2 7
Quaker Oats, in package 4.4 8
Macaroni, in package 4.5 8
Wheat flour, in bulk 4.6 8
Malt breakfast food, in package 4.8 8
Pettijohn, in package 5.3 9
Cream of Wheat, in package 5.7 10
Farina, in package 5.9 10
Cracked wheat, in bulk 5.9 10
Pearl barley, in package 6.0 10
Barley flour, in bulk 6.1 10
Whole rice, in bulk 6.1 10
Wheatena, in package 8.1 14

Table 3Cost of Ready-to-serve Cereals.
Shredded Wheat Biscuit 7.8 13
Grape-nuts 8.6 15
Force 9.4 16
Corn Flakes 11.7 20
Puffed rice 23.5

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