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قراءة كتاب The gradual acceptance of the Copernican theory of the universe

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The gradual acceptance of the Copernican theory of the universe

The gradual acceptance of the Copernican theory of the universe

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دار النشر: Project Gutenberg
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Transcriber's Note: Obvious printer errors have been corrected without note. Other questionable items are indicated with red dotted underlining; hover the mouse over the underlined text to see a Transcriber's Note. A list of these notes also appears at the end of this e-book.

Full-page illustrations have been moved to the nearest paragraph break so as not to interrupt the flow of the text, and blank pages have been omitted. Some page numbers have been skipped as a result.


The Gradual Acceptance


Copernican Theory of the Universe



Copyright 1917 by Dorothy Stimson

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The Baker & Taylor Co.,
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The Systems of the World in 1651 According to Father Riccioli

(Reduced facsimile of the frontispiece in Riccioli: Almagestum Novum. Bologna, 1651.)



"Astrea, goddess of the heaven, wearing angel's wings and gleaming everywhere with stars, stands at the right; on the left is Argus of the hundred eyes, not tense, but indicating by the position of the telescope at his knee rather than at the eyes in his head, that while observing the work of God's hand, he appears at the same time to be worshipping as in genuflexion." (Riccioli: Alm. Nov., Præfatio, xvii). He points to the cherubs in the heavens who hold the planets, each with its zodiacal sign: above him at the top is Mars, then Mercury in its crescent form, the Sun, and Venus also in the crescent phase; on the opposite side are Saturn in its "tripartite" form (the ring explanation was yet to be given), the sphere of Jupiter encircled by its four satellites, the crescent Moon, its imperfections clearly shown, and a comet. Thus Father Riccioli summarized the astronomical knowledge of his day. The scrolls quote Psalms 19:2, "Day unto day uttereth speech and night unto night showeth knowledge."

Astrea holds in her right hand a balance in which Riccioli's theory of the universe (an adaptation of the Tychonic, see p. 80) far outweighs the Copernican or heliocentric one. At her feet is the Ptolemaic sphere, while Ptolemy himself half lies, half sits, between her and Argus, with the comment issuing from his mouth: "I will arise if only I am corrected." His left hand rests upon the coat of arms of the Prince of Monaco to whom the Almagestum Novum is dedicated.

At the top is the Hebrew Yah-Veh, and the hand of God is stretched forth in reference to the verse in the Book of Wisdom (10:20): "But thou hast ordered all things in measure, and number and weight."


Illustrations 7
Preface 8
Part I. An Historical Sketch of the Heliocentric Theory of the Universe.
Chapter I. The Development of Astronomical Thought to 1400: Preliminary Review 9
Chapter II. Copernicus and his Times 20
Chapter III. Later Development and Scientific Defense of the Copernican Theory 33
Part II. The Reception of the Copernican Theory.
Chapter I. Opinions and Arguments in the Sixteenth Century 39
Chapter II. Bruno and Galileo 49
Chapter III. The Opposition and their Arguments 71
Chapter IV. The Gradual Acceptance of the Copernican Theory