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قراءة كتاب Clayton's Quaker Cook-Book Being a Practical Treatise on the Culinary Art Adapted to the Tastes and Wants of All Classes

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Clayton's Quaker Cook-Book
Being a Practical Treatise on the Culinary Art Adapted to the Tastes and Wants of All Classes

Clayton's Quaker Cook-Book Being a Practical Treatise on the Culinary Art Adapted to the Tastes and Wants of All Classes

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دار النشر: Project Gutenberg
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Clayton's Quaker Cook-Book,

BEING A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE CULINARY ART ADAPTED TO THE TASTES AND WANTS OF ALL CLASSES.

With plain and easily understood directions for the preparation of every variety of food in the most attractive forms. Comprising the result of a life-long experience in catering to a host of highly cultivated tastes.

—BY—

H. J. Clayton

San Francisco:
WOMEN'S CO-OPERATIVE PRINTING OFFICE.
1883.


Copyrighted according to Act of Congress, A. D. 1883, by H. J. Clayton.


PREFACE.

One of the sacred writers of the olden time is reported to have said: "Of the making of many books, there is no end." This remark will, to a great extent, apply to the number of works published upon the all important subject of Cookery. The oft-repeated saying, attributed to old sailors, that the Lord sends victuals, and the opposite party, the cooks, is familiar to all.

Notwithstanding the great number and variety of so-called cookbooks extant, the author of this treatise on the culinary art, thoroughly impressed with the belief that there is ample room for one more of a thoroughly practical and every day life, common sense character—in every way adapted to the wants of the community at large, and looking especially to the preparation of healthful, palatable, appetizing and nourishing food, both plain and elaborately compounded—and in the preparation of which the very best, and, at the same time, the most economical material is made use of, has ventured to present this new candidate for the public approval. The preparation of this work embodies the result of more than thirty years personal and practical experience. The author taking nothing for granted, has thoroughly tested the value and entire correctness of every direction he has given in these pages. While carefully catering to the varied tastes of the mass, everything of an unhealthful, deleterious, or even doubtful character, has been carefully excluded; and all directions are given in the plainest style, so as to be readily understood, and fully comprehended by all classes of citizens.

The writer having been born and brought up on a farm, and being in his younger days of a delicate constitution, instead of joining in the rugged work of the field, remained at home to aid and assist his mother in the culinary labors of the household. It was in this home-school—in its way one of the best in the world, that he acquired not only a practical knowledge of what he desires to fully impart to others, but a taste for the preparation, in its most attractive forms, of every variety of palatable and health-giving food. It was his early training in this homely school that induced him to make this highly important matter an all-absorbing theme and the subject of his entire life study. His governing rule in this department has ever been the injunction laid down by the chief of the Apostles: "Try all things; prove all things; and hold fast that which is good."

INTRODUCTORY.


A Brief History of the Culinary Art, and its Principal Methods.

Cooking is defined to be the art of dressing, compounding and preparing food by the aid of heat. Ancient writers upon the subject are of opinion that the practice of this art followed immediately after the discovery of fire, and that it was at first an imitation of the natural processes of mastication and digestion. In proof of the antiquity of this art, mention is made of it in many places in sacred writ. Among these is notably the memoirs of the Children of Israel while journeying in the wilderness, and their hankering after the "flesh-pots of Egypt."

Among the most enlightened people of ancient times,—cooking, if not regarded as one of the fine arts, certainly stood in the foremost rank among the useful. It was a highly honored vocation, and many of the most eminent and illustrious characters of Greece and Rome did not disdain to practice it. Among the distinguished amateurs of the art, in these modern times, may be mentioned Alexander Dumas, who plumed himself more upon his ability to cook famous dishes than upon his world-wide celebrity as the author of the most popular novels of his day.

In the state in which man finds most of the substances used for food they are difficult of digestion. By the application of heat some of these are rendered more palatable and more easily digested, and, consequently, that assimilation so necessary to the sustenance of life, and the repair of the constant waste attendant upon the economy of the human system. The application of heat to animal and vegetable substances, for the attainment of this end, constitutes the basis of the science of cookery.

Broiling, which was most probably the mode first resorted to in the early practice of this art, being one of the most common of its various operations, is quite simple and efficacious. It is especially adapted to the wants of invalids, and persons of delicate appetites. Its effect is to coagulate, in the quickest manner, upon the surface the albumen of the meat, effectually sealing up its pores, and thus retaining the rich juices and delicate flavor that would otherwise escape and be lost.

Roasting comes next in order, and for this two conditions are essentially requisite—a good, brisk fire, and constant basting. As in the case of broiling, care should be taken at the commencement to coagulate the albumen on the surface as speedily as possible. Next to broiling and stewing, this is the most economical mode of cooking meats of all kinds.

Baking meat is in very many respects objectionable—and should never be resorted to when other modes of cooking are available, as it reverses the order of good, wholesome cookery, in beginning with a slow and finishing with a high temperature. Meats cooked in this manner have never the delicate flavor of the roast, nor are they so easily digested.

Boiling is one of the easiest and simplest methods of cooking, but in its practice certain conditions must be carefully observed. The fire must be attended to, so as to properly regulate the heat. The utensils used for this purpose, which should be large enough to contain sufficient water to completely cover the meat, should be scrupulously clean, and provided with a close-fitting cover. All scum should be removed as fast as it rises, which will be facilitated by frequent additions of small quantities of cold water. Difference of opinion exists among cooks as to the propriety of putting meats in cold water, and gradually raising to the boiling point, or plunging into water already boiling. My own experience, unless in the preparation of soups, is decidedly in favor of the latter. Baron Liebig, the highest authority in such matters, decidedly favors this process. As in the case of roasting, the application of boiling water coagulates the albumen, thus retaining the juices of the meat that would be dissolved in the liquid.

Stewing is generally resorted to in the preparation of made dishes, and almost every variety of meats are adapted to this method. The better the quality of the meats, as a matter of course, the better the dish prepared in this way; but, by careful stewing, the coarser and rougher quality of meats can be rendered soft, tender and digestible, a desirable object not generally attained in other modes.

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