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قراءة كتاب History of the Jews, Vol. II (of 6)

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History of the Jews, Vol. II (of 6)

History of the Jews, Vol. II (of 6)

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دار النشر: Project Gutenberg
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HISTORY OF THE JEWS


HISTORY OF THE
JEWS

BY
HEINRICH GRAETZ

VOL. II

From the Reign of Hyrcanus (135 B. C. E.) to the
Completion of the Babylonian Talmud (500 C. E.)

Publisher's Logo

PHILADELPHIA
The Jewish Publication Society of America
5717–1956


Copyright, 1893, by
THE JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF AMERICA

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be
reproduced in any form without permission in
writing from the publisher: except by a reviewer
who may quote brief passages in a review to be
printed in a magazine or newspaper.

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA


CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I. page
JOHN HYRCANUS.
The Crowning Point of the Period​—​War with Antiochus Sidetes​—​Siege of Jerusalem​—​Treaty of Peace​—​The Parthian War​—​Hyrcanus joins Antiochus​—​Successful campaigns of Hyrcanus against the Samaritans and Idumæans​—​The Idumæans forced to embrace Judaism​—​Destruction of the Samaritan Temple at Gerizim and of the Capital, Samaria​—​Internal Affairs​—​The Parties: Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes​—​Their Rise and Constitution​—​Their Doctrines and their Relations to one another​—​The Synhedrion​—​Strained Relations between Hyrcanus and the Pharisees​—​Death of Hyrcanus 1
135–106 B. C. E.
CHAPTER II.
HYRCANUS'S SUCCESSORS, ARISTOBULUS I, ALEXANDER JANNÆUS, AND SALOME ALEXANDRA.
Character of Aristobulus​—​Antigonus​—​Mythical Account of his Death​—​Alexander Jannæus: his Character and Enterprises​—​His Support of the Pharisees​—​Simon ben Shetach​—​Alexander's Breach with the Pharisees, and its Consequences​—​His last Wars and Death​—​Salome Alexandra's Relations to the Opposing Parties​—​The Synhedrion​—​Judah ben Tabbai and Simon ben Shetach​—​Institutions against the Sadducees​—​Party Hatred​—​Diogenes​—​Persecution of the Sadducees​—​Death of Alexandra 35
106–69 B. C. E.
CHAPTER III.
HYRCANUS II. ARISTOBULUS II.
Brothers contend for the throne​—​Arrangement between the Brothers​—​The Idumæan Antipater​—​Hyrcanus's weakness​—​Aretas besieges Jerusalem​—​Interference of Rome​—​Pompey at Jerusalem​—​The Judæan colony in Rome​—​Flaccus in Asia Minor​—​Cicero's oration against the Judæans​—​Weakening of the power of the Synhedrion​—​Shemaya and Abtalion​—​Violent death of Aristobulus and his son Alexander​—​Julius Cæsar and the Judæans​—​Antipater's sons Phasael and Herod​—​Herod before the Synhedrion​—​Operations of Cassius in Judæa​—​Malich​—​Antigonus as King​—​Herod escapes to Rome 57
69–40 B. C. E.
CHAPTER IV.
ANTIGONUS AND HEROD.
Weakness of Antigonus and Herod's Strength of Character​—​Contest for the Throne​—​Herod becomes King​—​Proscriptions and Confiscations​—​Herod's Policy​—​Abolition of the Hereditary Tenure of the High Priesthood​—​Death of the High Priest Aristobulus​—​War with the Arabians​—​The Earthquake​—​Death of the last of the Hasmonæans​—​Hillel becomes the Head of the Synhedrion​—​His System of Tradition​—​Menahem the Essene​—​Shammai and his School​—​Mariamne​—​Herod's Magnificence and Passion for Building​—​Herod rebuilds the Temple​—​Herod executes his Sons Alexander and Aristobulus​—​Antipater and his Intrigues​—​The Pharisees under Herod​—​The Destruction of the Roman Eagle​—​Execution of Antipater and Death of Herod 84
40–3 B. C. E.
CHAPTER V.
THE HERODIANS.
The Family of Herod​—​Partition of the Kingdom of Judæa​—​Revolt against Archelaus​—​Sabinus and Varus​—​The Adventurer-Chief Judas the Galilæan​—​Confirmation of Herod's Will​—​Archelaus as Ruler​—​His brief Reign and his Banishment​—​Judæa becomes a Roman Province​—​The Revolt against the Census​—​The Schools of Hillel and Shammai​—​Judas Founder of the Party of Zealots​—​Onerous Taxation​—​Fresh Hostility of the Samaritans​—​Expulsion of the Judæans from Rome by Tiberius​—​Pontius Pilate 118
3 B. C. E.–37 C. E.
CHAPTER VI.
MESSIANIC EXPECTATIONS AND ORIGIN OF CHRISTIANITY.
The Messianic Hope​—​Various

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