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قراءة كتاب French Dishes for American Tables

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French Dishes for American Tables

French Dishes for American Tables

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دار النشر: Project Gutenberg
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FRENCH DISHES

FOR

AMERICAN TABLES.

BY
PIERRE CARON
(FORMERLY CHEF D'ENTREMETS AT DELMONICO'S).


TRANSLATED BY
Mrs. FREDERIC SHERMAN.




NEW YORK: D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 1, 3, AND 5 BOND STREET. 1886.


A FEW GENERAL REMARKS.

The object of this volume is to present to the public a number of attractive receipts in a form so clear and concise as to render their execution practicable and comparatively easy. This is a need which we believe has long been felt; those books of value on the subject of cookery hitherto published generally having been written in French, and those which have appeared in English, while perhaps containing something of merit, usually so abound in the use of technical terms as to harass and puzzle the inexperienced. The general directions also are usually of such vague and incomprehensible a character as to render their meaning quite unintelligible to the reader. In view of these difficulties, we have endeavored to avoid those terms not generally understood, and to condense each receipt as much as possible, compatible with a clear and thorough understanding of the subject. We have also studied simplicity of language, so that our book may come within the comprehension of all classes, and that which we consider of importance, to cooks themselves. We believe that we will not be met with indignant protest in venturing to assert that cooking as an art is greatly neglected in America, this fact being only too frequently and universally deplored. The wealthy who may afford a chef, or very experienced cook, are vastly in the minority of those who suffer from the incapability of cooks, and also from the lack of knowledge on their own part, leading to the neglect of one of the most important factors of comfortable living. We think, however, that the number of people of moderate income, desiring to live well, and yet within their means, is very large; and it is to these, as well as to the more affluent, that we hope this book may be of use, for, while economy is not its sole object, the variety of receipts for palatable dishes which may be prepared at small cost is very large. On the other hand, of course, there are a great number of dishes which are obviously expensive; but these may be distinguished at a glance.

In conclusion, we would remark that, as we know the furnishings of American kitchens to be very meager, we have forborne the mention of particular utensils for the preparation of certain dishes. There are, however, a few articles which are indispensable if the best results are expected—viz., a Dutch oven, for roasting meats, poultry, and game, before the fire, and not in the oven of the range, which bakes instead of roasting, and so dries up the juices of the meats.

A mortar and pestle will also be required when "pounding" is mentioned, as for chicken, meats, almonds, etc.

A fine sieve is necessary for the straining of sauces; and two flannel bags, kept scrupulously clean, one for the purpose of straining soups and the other for straining jellies.

SOUPS AND SAUCES.

It must be constantly borne in mind that soups must be always allowed to simmer gently, and never to boil fast, except where express directions are given to that effect. Always be particular to remove every particle of scum whenever it rises. When stock is put away on ice to become cold for the next day's use, remove the fat on the top with a spoon, wipe over the top of the jelly with a cloth dipped in hot water, and then, with a dry cloth, wipe the jelly dry. It, however, seems to us a good plan to keep the stock-pot always filled, the stock simmering on the fire, so as to be at hand when needed for the preparation of different soups and sauces. In fact, this seems almost indispensable where a variety of dishes is required. The same rule in regard to slow boiling also applies to sauces.

BROILING.

Be careful to always grease the bars of your gridiron before laying on it the object to be broiled. It is better to broil on a gridiron before the fire than on one which is placed on top of the range. Season with salt and pepper while broiling, and not after the object is taken from the fire.

FRYING.

Be careful that your frying-pan is very clean, as anything adhering to the bottom of the pan is apt to burn, and therefore spoil the object to be fried. To fry well, the fat should always be very hot, as its success depends entirely on this. To judge of the proper temperature of the fat, when it becomes quite still, dip the prongs of a fork in cold water, and allow a few drops to fall into the fat, which, if it crackles, is sufficiently hot. Or, drop a small piece of bread into the fat, and if it fries instantly a light brown, the desired result is reached. Dripping and butter should be clarified before using, the former in the following manner: Put the dripping in a saucepan, on the fire, and when boiling pour it into a bowl, into which you have previously put half a pint of cold water. When cold, with a knife cut around the edge and remove the cake of dripping. Scrape off all the sediment adhering to the bottom of the cake, which wipe dry with a clean cloth.

Many persons prefer lard rather than dripping for frying.

Butter is clarified in the following manner: Put some butter in a saucepan on the fire, and when boiling remove the scum from the top, and pour the clear butter gently into the pan which is required for use.

It is quite indispensable to good cooking that every dish requiring to be served hot should never be allowed to wait in the kitchen, but should be served with the greatest promptitude possible, as a dish prepared with every imaginable care will be sure to fail of its effect if served lukewarm or cold. The first quality in a cook, therefore, should be punctuality, which should be encouraged and appreciated by the guests.


The receipts as here given are all for eight persons.

FRENCH DISHES
FOR AMERICAN TABLES.
———————

CHAPTER I.
SOUPS.

1. Consommé, or Stock. Put in a stock-pot a roast fowl (or the carcass and remains of a fowl), a knuckle of veal, three pounds of beef, and three quarts of water. When the scum begins to rise, skim carefully until it quite ceases to appear. Then add a carrot, a turnip, an onion, a leek, two cloves, a little celery, and a little salt. Simmer very gently four hours. Remove every particle of grease, and strain through a flannel kept for the purpose. This soup is the foundation of most soups and sauces. To clarify: when necessary that the soup should be very clear, clarify it in the following manner: Put in a saucepan a pound of chopped raw beef (off the round is preferable), which mix with an egg and two glasses of water, and pour into your consommé. Simmer very gently for an hour, and strain.

2. Bouillon, or Beef Broth. Put into a stock-pot three pounds of a shin of

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