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قراءة كتاب Mesa Verde National Park
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Mesa Verde National Park
United States Department of the Interior
Harold L. Ickes, Secretary
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
Arno B. Cammerer, Director
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
Rules and Regulations
A complete copy of the rules and regulations for governing the park may be seen at the office of the superintendent.
Secure automobile permit, fee $1 per car. Speed limit 35 miles per hour on entrance highway, 20 miles per hour in headquarters area and on ruin roads. Drive carefully; free wheeling is prohibited within the park.
Confine fires to designated places. Extinguish completely before leaving camp, even for temporary absences. Do not guess your fire is out—KNOW IT.
Use only the wood that is stacked and marked “firewood” near your campsite. By all means do not use your ax on any standing tree or strip bark from the junipers.
Burn all combustible rubbish before leaving your camp. Do not throw papers, cans, or other refuse on the ground or over the canyon rim. Use the incinerators which are placed for this purpose.
Do not venture away from the headquarters area unless accompanied by a guide or after first having secured permission from a duly authorized park officer.
Hunting is prohibited within the park. This area is a sanctuary for all wildlife.
Be quiet in camp after others have gone to bed. Many people come here for rest.
The rangers are here to help and advise you as well as to enforce regulations. When in doubt, ask a ranger.
Ruins and Structures
Do not mark, disturb, or injure in any way the ruins or any of the buildings, signs, or other properties within the park.
Trees, Flowers, and Animals
Do not carve initials upon or pull the bark from any logs or trees. Flowers may not be picked unless written permission is obtained from the superintendent or park naturalist. Do not harm or frighten any of the wild animals or birds within the park. We wish to protect them for your enjoyment.
Register and secure permit at the park entrance. Between travel seasons, registration and permit are arranged for at park headquarters.
OF HISTORICAL IMPORTANCE
|1st century B. C. or A. D.||The earliest occupation of Cliff Palace cave was probably before, or immediately following, the beginning of the Christian era. These earliest occupants, known to scientists as Basket Makers, were the first agricultural Indians of the Southwest.|
|4th to 7th centuries A. D.||By the beginning of the fourth century A. D., the early agriculturists were developing the art of pottery making. Later, their semisubterranean homes were spread widely over the Mesa Verde.|
|7th to 10th centuries A. D.||During the three or four centuries preceding 1000 A. D., the Pueblo Culture on Mesa Verde was developing from modest beginnings toward its classical stage, which culminated in the building of the great cliff dwelling.|
|1066||Earliest date established for large Mesa Verde cliff dwellings. (Beam section from Mug House.)|
|1073-1273||Construction of Cliff Palace.|
|1276||Beginning of 23-year drought, an important factor in forcing the Cliff dwellers from the Mesa Verde.|
|1776||Expedition of Padre Silvestre Velez de Escalante to southwestern Colorado. Party camped at the base of the Mesa Verde.|
|1859||Ascent of the north escarpment of Mesa Verde by Capt. J. N. Macomb, of the United States Army, and members of his party of geologists.|
|1874||Discovery of the ruins in the Mancos Canyon by W. H. Jackson, United States Geological Survey. Party attacked by Ute Indians.|
|1888||Discovery of Cliff Palace and other major ruins by Richard Wetherill and Charlie Mason.|
|1891||First organized archeological expedition to Mesa Verde, under direction of Baron G. Nordenskiöld.|
|1906||Mesa Verde National Park created June 29.|
|1907||Excavation of Spruce Tree House by Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, of Smithsonian Institution.|
|1909||Excavation of Cliff Palace.|
|1911||Excavation and repair of Balcony House by Jesse L. Nusbaum.|
|1913||First entrance road completed. First automobile in Spruce Tree Camp. Extension of park boundaries to include notable ruins and archeological remains.|
|1914||Construction of first wagon road from Spruce Tree Camp to principal cliff dwellings.|
|1915||Sun Temple excavated by Dr. Fewkes.|
|1916||Far View House excavated by Dr. Fewkes.|
|1917||First Government-constructed trails to Spring House and Soda Canyon.|
|1918||First camp accommodations established at Spruce Tree Camp.|
|1919||Square Tower House excavated.|
|1921||Establishment of superintendent’s office and home at Spruce Tree Camp.|
|1925||First unit of park museum constructed from donated funds.|
|1926||Excavation of Step House Ruin and discovery of very early occupation of cave by Basket Maker III culture predating the cliff dwellers by several hundred years.|
|1928||Exclusive jurisdiction of park tendered to the United States and accepted by act of Congress April 25.|
|1934||Completion of deep water well (4,192 feet).|