everywhere observable. It seems to be apparent that there is a consciousness, a seat of knowledge, in man the content of which is unknown to the sense-consciousness. Dreams, premonitions, intuitions, impressions and the totality of all such phenomena substantiate this view. Furthermore, it is agreed that the source of the intuition is not identical with that of the intellect. The egopsychic consciousness, accordingly, is purely intellectual.
FLUXION, PSYCHIC—The difference between a mental image and an object; an image is the representation of certain salient or cardinal characteristics of an object, sufficient for identification; but an image is not congruent, in every respect, with the object. Thus when we perceive an object, although as Bergson contends we perceive it in the place where it is and not in the brain, it is the image of the object which takes its place in memory and not the object itself. There is, of course, a marked disparity between this memory-image and the object. Even if the image possessed one of the properties of the object, as, size, it could not take its place in memory, and neither could it do so if it possessed any of the properties of the real object. Consciousness is such that all due allowances are made for these conditions and the mind is able to retain more or less exact knowledge of these properties in the image; but there is a difference, small though it may be. This difference is the psychic fluxional.
FOHAT (Skt)—A term applied to the Creative Logos who is said to be the generating element in the differentiation of chaos into kosmic orderliness; the supreme deity in the rôle of Creator.
FORM, PURE—An abstraction arrived at by subtracting the last vestige of materiality or substantiality from an idea and viewing the remains as a pure unsubstantial form or idealization; the shell or frame-work of a material object or condition; existing in idea or thought only; a mental conception regarded as a type or norm; a purely hypothetical construction.
FOUR SPACE—Often referred to as the fourth dimension (vide Chapter V); a space in which four coördinates (four lines drawn perpendicular to each other) are necessary and sufficient to establish the position of a point, as, a hypercube.
GAUSS, CHARLES FREDERICK, born at Brunswick, April 30, 1777. His father, being a bricklayer, had intended that he should follow the same occupation. So, in 1784, Charles was sent to the Bütner Public School in Brunswick, in order that he might be taught the ordinary elements of education. But during his attendance at this school, his unusual intelligence and aptitude attracted the attention and friendship of Professor Bartels who later became the Professor of Mathematics at Dorpat. In 1792, through the kindly representations of Professor Bartels to the Duke of Brunswick, young Gauss was sent to the Collegium Carolinum. This greatly displeased his father as he saw in this move the frustration of his plans for Charles. In 1794, however, Gauss entered the University of Göttingen still undecided whether he should make mathematics or philology his life work. While residing at Göttingen, he made his celebrated discoveries in analysis and these turned his attention definitely to the field of mathematics.
He completed his studies at Göttingen and returned to Brunswick in 1798, residing at Helmstadt where he had access to the Library in the preparation of his Disquisitiones Arithmeticae which was published in 1801. He received his doctorate degree (Ph.D.) on July 16, 1799. His next notable work was the invention of a method by which he calculated the elements of the orbit of the planet Ceres which had been discovered by Piazzi, January 1, 1800, and who had left no record of his calculations by which other astronomers could locate the planet. Gauss also calculated an ephemeris of Ceres' motion by means of which De Zach rediscovered the planet December 31, 1800.
His Theoria Motus Corporum Coelestium in Conicis Sectionibus Solem Ambientium, in which the author gives a "complete system of formulæ and processes for computing the movements of a heavenly body revolving in a conic section" is an outgrowth of his early researches and brought him lasting fame.
Through the influence of his friend Olbers, he was appointed, July 9, 1807, first director of the new Göttingen Observatory, and Professor of Astronomy in the University, a position which he held until the end of his life. He died February 23, 1855. (Vide Astronomical Society Notices, Vol. 16, p. 80, 1856; also Nature, Vol. XV, pp. 533-537, 1877.)
GEOMETRISM—Of geometrical quality; a notion derived from Plato's declaration: "God geometrizes." It was his belief that the creative acts of the deity are executed in accordance with geometric design and laws; that in the totality of such acts there necessarily inheres a latent geometric quality. Kant closely adhered to this notion in his discussions of space as an aspect of divine intelligence. He believed that the intellect merely rediscovers this latent geometrism when it turns to the study of materiality, and this belief is shared by Bergson, the foremost metaphysician of the present time.
HYPERSPACE (hyper, above, beyond, transcending—space)—That species of space constructed by the intellect for convenience of measurement; an idealized construction; a purely arbitrary, conventional mathematical determination; the fourth dimension; any space that requires more than three coördinates to fix a point position in it, as, a five space, an n-space.
INTUITOGRAPH—The means by which the omnipsychic consciousness transmits intuitional impressions to the egopsychic or intellectual consciousness. An intuitogram is a direct cognition, an intuition; a primary truth projected into the egopsychic consciousness by the Thinker. It is recognized that, under the necessities of the present schematism of things, it is exceedingly difficult to propagate an intuition, especially with the same degree of ease as concepts are propagable; yet, this is believed to be a condition which will be overcome as the evolution of the higher faculties proceeds.
INVOLUTION—Process of enfolding, involving; antithesis of evolution; philosophically, the doctrine of involution maintains that, during the process of kosmic pyknosis (space-genesis), all that is to be expressed, developed and perfected as a result of the evolutionary movement was first involved, enfolded or deposited as latent archetypal tendencies and radicles in the original world-plasm; that, as the involutionary movement proceeded through the various phases of space-genesis, these became more and more phenomenal until at last they terminated in the elaboration of a manifest universe: each stage, accordingly, of the involutionary procedure became the basic substructure of a plane of specialized substance or materiality and consciousness. Thus it appears that evolution really begins where involution ends (vide Fig. 18), and the two opposing processes constitute the dualism of life as generating element. This notion has been symbolized in the Lingam yoni of Hellenistic philosophies, also in Yang and Yin of Chinese philosophy, which represent the original pair of opposites.
KATHEKOS—A purely arbitrary term devised for the express purpose of providing a convenient symbol to convey the idea embodied in the triglyph, Chaos-Theos-Kosmos, and is composed of the first three letters in each one of the terms