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قراءة كتاب Food in War Time

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Food in War Time

Food in War Time

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دار النشر: Project Gutenberg
الصفحة رقم: 6
1485 1548 1620 1692 1773 1854 1949 2052

The basal metabolism of an average boy of thirteen years of age weighing 80 pounds and of a height of 4 feet, 10 inches, may be calculated as 1525 calories per day. This is the same as that of a man twenty-five years old, weighing 126 pounds and 5 feet, 2 inches tall.

A boy thirteen years old and weighing 156 pounds, his height being 6 feet, 1 inch (there are such cases), would have a basal metabolism of 2300 calories, or larger than that of any grown man given in the table—larger than a man weighing 211 pounds and 6 feet, 4 inches in height. I personally know a boy of this age and size. His parents are said to have sent him to boarding school in order to reduce their food bills.

It is evident from this discussion that the food requirement of boys over twelve years old is about the same as that of men. The emaciation of the children of the poor probably reduces their requirement of food. It is not generally recognized that the boy needs as much food as his father. The requirements of girls have not been investigated, but they probably need as much as their mothers.

These data will give with close scientific precision the minimal requirement for energy which is necessary for the maintenance of the bed-ridden.

Ordinary life, however, is not constituted after this fashion. "By the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat bread."

From the work of F. G. Benedict one may calculate the increase in the basal metabolism, as follows:

Occupation Increase in
the basal
in per cent.
Sitting 5
Standing, relaxed 10
Standing, hand on a staff 11
Standing, leaning on support 3
Standing, "attention" 14

If one wishes to determine from the basal metabolism table the heat production of a person who is confined to his room, one should add to the metabolism of the twenty-four hours the increase above the basal for those hours of the day during which he is sitting in a chair or standing.

Passing to a consideration of the subject of mechanical work done by a man, one finds that it requires about 1.1 calories to transport a pound of body weight three miles during an hour, and that increasing power must be generated if the speed is increased above this rate of maximal economic velocity.

These relations are shown below:

Rate of movement Extra calories
per hour required
to move 1 pound
of body
Walking 3 miles per hour 1.1
Walking 5.3 miles per hour 3.6
Running 5.3 miles per hour 3.1

If one wishes to determine the heat production of a man weighing 156 pounds and 5 feet, 7 inches in height, and who is walking or running, the following calculations can be made:

Rate of travel per hour in miles 3[3]
Metabolism for transporting 156 pounds 172 562 484
Basal metabolism 70 70 70
Add for standing 7 7 7
249 639 561

If the man's food cost 10 cents a thousand calories, it may be calculated that he would have to walk over eight miles at a rate of three miles per hour in order to save money when he pays a 5-cent carfare. (This, however, does not include the cost of shoe leather.)

The carrying of a load of 44 pounds is done at the same expenditure of energy as the carrying of one's own body weight when the rate is three miles an hour, so the soldier's equipment would call for the added expenditure of 48 calories (44 × 1.1), making his total hourly expenditure of energy nearly 300 calories (249 + 44) during a hike on a level road. His daily requirement for energy might be:

Sleeping 8 hours at 70 calories per hour 560
Resting in camp 6 hours at 77 calories per hour 462
Hike of 30 miles, 10 hours at 300 calories per hour 3000

This would be the heat production of a soldier on a day of a "forced march." The ordinary day's march is only fifteen miles.

This assumes a level road. If, however, there are hills to climb and the body weight and the pack are lifted 1000 feet during the hike, this is done at the additional expense of approximately 0.96 calory of energy per pound of weight lifted. If the man weighed 156 pounds and the pack 44 pounds, the additional fuel requirement would be 192 calories (200 × 0.96). The total energy requirement for this kind of a hike would have been 4200 calories. Walking down hill is accomplished at an expenditure of slightly less energy than walking on the level, but this factor need not concern one.

Supposing, however, this individual were running, lightly clad, on a level road in a race for a distance of 40 miles at the rate of 5.3 miles per hour, he would complete the distance in seven hours and thirty-three minutes, which is a reasonable record. His metabolism might thus be calculated:

Sleeping 10 hours at 70 calories per hour 700
Resting 6 hours, 23 minutes, at 77 calories per hour 497
Running 7 hours, 33 minutes, at 561 calories per hour 4236

It is a matter of record that a man has run between Milwaukee and Chicago, a distance of 80 miles, in about fifteen hours. Such an amount of work would have required over 9000 calories for the day.

These calculations are all based upon experimental results obtained in various laboratories in different parts of the world and can be accepted as being free from any gross