instant, that a dangerous spirit of discontent had been discovered in the army, and of the measures I took to suppress it. I am happy to inform you that this spirit seems entirely to have subsided, as the persons who fomented it are removed at a distance from the troops: and, as we have now a prospect of some cloathing, and more comfortable supplies, I hope it will no more appear.
"Your Excellency has been informed of the late important and interesting changes in the face of affairs.—The arrival of Sir Guy Carlton, and the change of ministers and measures, will open a new field of hopes for this country. How far we may be benefited by it, a little time will determine; but it will inevitably be attended with one bad consequence, as it will relax our preparation for a continuance of the war, which, to me, appears extremely probable. General Leslie has made overtures, and a proposition for a suspension of hostilities; I do myself the honor to inclose you copies of his letter, and my answer on the subject, from which you will see the ground on which it stands. I wait most anxiously for advices from Congress or your Excellency, by which my conduct in the business must be ultimately directed. I suppose this measure has been adopted
by Sir Guy Carlton, and proposed to your Excellency; but, as I am entirely at a loss to know on what conditions, and what purposes it has to answer, I can form no conclusive opinion on its propriety.
"I am sanguine that the operations against Jamaica will go on, notwithstanding the late misfortune, which seems to be rather a splendid than useful victory to the enemy. And as Count de Guichen, who has arrived with a considerable squadron, and taken the command of the combined fleets in the West Indies, is still much superior to the British, we have good reason to hope the enterprise may succeed.
"Inclosed, I transmit your Excellency the Report of Brigadier-General Wayne of a considerable skirmish in Georgia, wherein Lieut.-Col. Brown, with four or five hundred men, were defeated. The plan was judicious, and executed in a manner that does great honor both to the general and the troops. It will have very happy consequences in impressing the Indians with an idea of our superior power, and in the destruction of their cavalry.
"The enemy continue their camp, entrenched at the Quarter House, in a strong position. Their patroles of horse, and ours, frequently go over the same ground. Captain Armstrong of the Legion, and Captain Gill of the fourth regiment, with about forty dragoons of Lieut.-Colonel Laurens's command, fell in with a troop of their horse two days ago, and took an officer, eight men, and ten horses, without suffering any other in injury than two men wounded.
"With the highest esteem and regard,
I have the honor to [be]
"General Washington to Governor Livingston.
"From the inclosed information of Captain Stevens, there is reason to apprehend the business of driving cattle to the enemy is carrying on with great art and assiduity; it would be a happy circumstance if the villains concerned in it could be detected. I have therefore to propose to your Excellency, that you will be pleased to take such precautions as you shall judge best calculated to learn whether any such cattle are passing in droves, or smaller parcels (for they may be divided on the road), to the enemy.
"If your Excellency should hear of them before they turn off towards New York, I think it would be advisable to employ some trusty man or men to dog and follow them privately, until the fact is ascertained; otherwise, it is to be feared, no positive proof of the intention of the people engaged in this infamous trade can be obtained.
"I sincerely wish every practicable plan may be attempted for seizing the cattle, apprehending and bringing to condign punishment the men; as this would tend essentially to frustrate the insidious schemes of our enemies, as well as deter their other agents from similar practices.
"I have the honor to be,
With perfect respect,
Most Obedient Servant,
"P.S.—I am honor'd with your Excellency's letter of the 24th June.
"His Excellency Gov. Livingston."
ON A PASSAGE IN THE "DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE OF ENGLAND."—SURNAMES.
In this work, to the justly high character of which I need scarcely refer, the "General Remarks" relating to the periods under consideration are full of information of the most interesting kind, as they often contain illustrations of manners and customs not to be met with elsewhere.
In a portion of the "Remarks" illustrative of the thirteenth century, showing the difficulty and insecurity of travelling at that time (pp. 120-122.), there is, however, an incorrect rendering of an extract from an original document; and this error seriously affects the "illustration" afforded by it. As I am in some degree personally involved in the matter, having supplied the material in its original shape, I may perhaps be permitted fully to explain and correct the passage. My only regret is, that I had not the opportunity of calling my friend's attention to the subject before the sheets were finally struck off. The extract is from an Account of the Chamberlain of Chester, 29-30 Edw. I., showing how the sum of 1000l. was transmitted from Chester to London. After referring to the convoy for the treasure:
"It was not sufficient, however," says the late Mr. Turner, "that the money should be protected; in the absence of hostels, except in towns, it was necessary to secure the guards from hunger. Therefore they were accompanied by two cooks, who provided 'a safe lodging' daily for the money; and, as a matter of course, provided for the culinary necessities of its conductors."
It will be seen that upon the word rendered "cooks" depends the whole value of this passage,
as evidence of the road-side necessities of the period. That word, however, does not bear such a construction; although, at first sight, nothing would be more natural than to render it so. It is written in the original "cok'," contracted; and to those conversant with mediæval Latin, it is known to express "cokinus—coquinus," Gallicè "coquin:" a word derived from "coquus," and not that word itself. It occurs commonly enough in the Royal Wardrobe Accounts, and means simply "a messenger." For those who have not the opportunity of referring to original documents, there is a very good account of the persons so designated supplied by the Liber quotidianus Contrarotulatoris Garderobæ, anno 28 Edw. I., edited by John Topham, Esq., in 1787, from the original in the library of the Society of Antiquaries. It is referred to in the note to the Post Office Report as containing the words Cokinus, Nuncius, and Garcio, used apparently in one sense. At p. 280. is an account of payments under the heading "Titulus